Essay on Theories of Stereotyping

Essay on Theories of Stereotyping

Length: 927 words (2.6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

When Gordon Allport published The Nature of Prejudice in 1954, he provided the basis for further empirical studies on the nature of human interrelationships of in-group and intergroup nature. To understand stereotypes in relation to in/intergroup, we first need to provide a general background of the terms. According to Allport (1979), what usually defines an in-group is that all of its members "use the term we with the same essential significance." (p. 31) For example, members can be brought together by affiliations in relation to profession, education (i.e. particular schools, colleges), church, etc. The attachment in such cases is variable and flexible, meaning one can change profession or school and thus become member of a different in-group. By in-groups, we therefore understand a particular affiliation to smaller groups or groups which belong to certain constructions. Ethnic groups and race groups are also considered part of the category; however, these are understood as much larger assemblies. Secondly, "intergroup" refers to the relations occurring between two or more social groups.
Stereotyping occurs both in-group and intergroup. This assumes that, within an in-group, although individuals share similar visions in relation to the nature of the group, stereotyping may still occur. Because any group is of social nature, different organizational structures and ranks will exist. As such, within an in-group, higher-status and dominant units exert influence upon most of the in-group. When high – ranked groups criticize those under their subordination, the latter may come to assimilate those negative perceptions, the discriminatory behavior leading thus to feelings of low self-esteem or dissociation. This can r...


... middle of paper ...


...h Psychology, 41, 365 – 385. Retrieved from
http://www.psor.ucl.ac.be/personal/yzerbyt/Castano%20et%20al.%20BJSP%202002.pdf
Dollard, J., Doob, L.W. Miller, N. E., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gordon, Allport. (1979). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Sherif, M. (1966). Group conflict and cooperation: Their social psychology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Tajfel, H. (Ed.). (1978). Differentiation between social groups. London: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-47). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.


Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Stereotyping

- Stereotyping Stereotyping is a form of pre judgement that is as prevalent in today's society as it was 2000 years ago. It is a social attitude that has stood the test of time and received much attention by social psychologists and philosophers alike. Many approaches to, or theories of stereotyping have thus been raised. This essay evaluates the cognitive approach that categorisation is an essential cognitive process that inevitably leads to stereotyping. Hamilton (1979) calls this a 'depressing dilemma'....   [tags: Psychology Stereotyping Stereotype Essays]

Free Essays
2855 words (8.2 pages)

Female Stereotyping in the Film Industry Essay

- Films have been in the forefront of perpetuating female stereotypes not only in the recent past but also throughout the history of filmmaking. Stereotyping refers to thoughts or expressions that specific type of individuals behave in a particular way, which is not necessarily true. The film industry for a long time has depicted the behaviors and roles of women in a negative way thus contributing to retrogressive beliefs about women in society. Various theories have been proposed to explain why personalities behind film making create female stereotypes....   [tags: body, beauty, femininity]

Better Essays
876 words (2.5 pages)

Stereotyping: Nature of the Beast Essay

- . There are hundreds of behavior patterns that are considered stereotyping. In all reality it is our perception of others based on typical behavior. It is human nature for everyone to pass judgment and to categorize one another. As humans we need to continuously learn to thrive and embrace the changes of life around us. Even though stereotypes will always be around, knowing what to expect and how to react to them effectively will ensure a better form of stereotyping for future generations (Ann, 2010)....   [tags: Sociology]

Better Essays
1479 words (4.2 pages)

Female Politicians Face: Gender Stereotyping by Voters Essay

- A subject that has drawn a great deal of scholarly attention are the burdens of female politicians. Women seeking office have to deal with a host of issues that may affect their political campaign and chances of being elected. There are several theories that address some of the obstacles female politicians face: gender stereotyping by voters have detrimental effects for female candidates (Kahn and Goldenberg 1991), male candidates have access to political resources that just are not as accessible to the female politician (Deber 1982), the portrayal of the female candidates as less than male candidates by the media damages her chances of winning (Cohen 1963), and those differences in turn sha...   [tags: female candidates, power, modern politics]

Better Essays
1900 words (5.4 pages)

Stereotypes And Stereotypes Of Stereotyping Essay

- You make assumptions of people as soon as you see them. Do you ever look at someone and make assumptions right away about that person without knowing them. Stereotypes occur without you realizing it. Stereotype is “to believe unfairly that all people or things with a particular characteristic are the same” (“Stereotype”). I believe everywhere in our American society we either stereotype or witness stereotyping because it has become a natural instinct. Psychologists say we categorize -- or stereotype -- by age and race and gender, because our brains are wired to do so automatically (Stossel and Kendall para....   [tags: Stereotype, Stereotypes, Gender, Stereotype threat]

Better Essays
1590 words (4.5 pages)

Sociological Theories Of The Social Problem Recidivism Essay

- This paper will explain what the social problem recidivism is; as well as attempt to explain with three sociological theories why is occurs. The question this paper will work around is what sociological theories can help explain recidivism and why is it even seen as a social problem. Recidivism is at its simplest form defined as the chance that a released prisoner will recommit a criminal act. However the National Institute of Justice gives a much more detailed definition of the concept. They define it has “Recidivism is one of the most fundamental concepts in criminal justice....   [tags: Crime, Criminology, Sociology, Prison]

Better Essays
3930 words (11.2 pages)

Stereotyping of Female Offenders in the Criminal Justice System Essay

- When the criminal justice system was established, the main objective was to create neutrality and fairness between the sexes. Even though people might believe that there is no such thing as ‘stereotyping’ in the criminal justice system, it is quite obvious that women are constantly being look down upon because of their sex. In general, women tend to be treated like fragile objects that could break at any moment; the truth is that women can be strong and courageous just like men. Society stereotypes women and the criminal justice system is no different....   [tags: weaker sex, advantages]

Better Essays
988 words (2.8 pages)

Sex-Role Stereotyping Essay

- In any culture, ideas of masculinity and femininity influence societal expectations. While these expectations are not inescapable, the new generation takes its cues from older generations, and thus, any change in them is slow. Few would argue that some differences do exist between men and women. However, are these differences significant enough to perpetuate male and female stereotypes. More importantly, do such stereotypes serve any benefit to an individual or culture. Jeanne Humphrey Block, author of Conceptions of Sex Role- Some Cross Cultural and Longitudinal Perspectives, uses the term “sex role” to describe the set of characteristics that define and differentiate men and women....   [tags: Gender Studies, argumentative, persuasive]

Better Essays
837 words (2.4 pages)

Motivation Theories Essay

- Motivation is defined as “the desire to achieve a goal or a certain performance level” (Bauer & Erdogen, 2009, p.97). Motivation theories are useful tools that organizations can use to energize employees and foster a stimulating work environment. These theories are categorized as either content or process theories. Today, Bauer and Erdogen (2009) state that many organizations have applied motivation theories ,such as the goal setting theory and reinforcement theory, in order to modify their employees’ behavior in the workplace through goals and reward systems....   [tags: Business Management ]

Better Essays
1165 words (3.3 pages)

Sex Roles and Gender Bias in Early Childhood Education Essay

- Sex role stereotyping and gender bias permeate everyday life. Children learn about sex roles very early in their lives, probably before they are 18 months old, certainly long before they enter school.(Howe, 1). The behaviors that form these sex roles often go unnoticed but their effect is immeasurable. Simple behaviors like: the color coding of infants (blue & pink), the toys children are given, the adjectives used to describe infants (boys: handsome, big, strong; girls: sweet, pretty, precious), and the way we speak to and hold them are but a few of the ways the sex roles are introduced....   [tags: Stereotyping Bias Gender Roles Stereotypes Essays]

Better Essays
2170 words (6.2 pages)