Fifty years from now the world would be at a crossroad as by then major issues that have been building in recent years would have come to a head. Economically, the world would be on a slow recovery from another global financial crisis after China uses it 's building economic power to secure a deal from the main oil companies to use Chinese currency as a base, either in addition or instead of the dollar, which negatively impacts U.S or crashes its economy respectively. Whether it 's a cause of, happened during, or is a strategic move directly following the war in the Middle East (and by proxy, Russia, and China if this move on oil happened first/during) the combined effect of these two events cripples the western economies, whereas China and its allies that it created a bank with would be mostly secured. This would bring a power shift from a uni-polar world to bi or multi-powered, with China reaching super power status.
Climate would be another issue; at this point the affects of global warming would start to hit in full force. Changing and extreme weather patterns would increase as would sea level, resulting in slow flooding of the worlds coasts, new records in high and low temperatures, and a large increase of weather phenomena such as tornadoes and hurricanes. Mass extinctions, especially of sensitive species such as amphibians, insects, and plants, are a distinct possibility. Ocean currents may shift and disrupt the balance needed for marine life, making over-fishing another concern. The patterns of El Nino and La Nina would become difficult to predict, and droughts further affect world agricultural and food supply. Less land, higher population, harsh climate, and more difficulty securing resources would make re...
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...government is unlikely at all much less within that time as that would need all the states in the world to be able to believe that a single government would have all their best interests in mind without favoritism, giving up a significant amount of sovereignty, and that single government actually being able to do its job.
The world being broken into more nation-states would be a possible outcome in an extreme case of failing to address and keep up with the effects of the global warming problem do to infighting and lack of resources. The idea of the maximum capacity being reached and contributing to the cause of that scenario is less likely because improper preparation and scarcity combined may lower global population faster than population growth, though one may consider that the maximum capacity as lowered too from loss of resources, and have it apply that way.
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